The correct position of the organs of speech in order to produce a letter so that it can be differentiated from others. This is
equally so whether the letter is a consonant or a vowel.
Being able to recite the letters correctly is the foundation of tajweed, and this is achieved by knowing where the sound originates. This can then help in practising the pronunciation of the letters correctly.
The diagram below gives a snapshot of where each letter originates :
However, Makhaarij must be used hand in hand with
sifa (characteristics of the letter) in order to pronounce the letter completely and correctly, as the
Makhraj provides the origin and the Sifa provides extra information required to pronounce the letter properly.
To achieve the correct makhraj of a letter, practise via placing a sukoon () on it, and precede it with an alif / hamzah with a kasrah ()
Many letters come from the mouth: that is the tongue and its connection with the different areas of the teeth and mouth
There are 4 main makhaarij that can be divided into 10 sub-categories:
The furthest back part of the tongue – this has 2 sub categories:
is pronounced by the extreme back of the tongue touching the upper palate to create a thick sound in the tonsils vicinity,with a round sound ()
The makhraj is slightly in front of the . This time the tongue should not meet the upper palate other than what is necessary to pronounce the letter. So the sound still comes from the back of the tongue, except this time the tongue is not elevated.()
The middle of the tongue – this single makhraj covers 3 letters:
These are all pronounced when the middle part of the tongue comes in contact with what lies opposite to it from the roof of the mouth
The side of the tongue – this has 2 specific points of articulation:
The rear side of the tongue touches the upper back teeth (upper molars) in either one of 3 ways : from the right side, from the left side OR from both sides. The left side of the tongue is most commonly used as it is easier than the right, and usage of both sides of
the tongue is rare ()
Located behind the makhraj of the ()
The tip of the tongue
These letters pretty much come from the same place – the difference between them is slight but important. The tip of the tongue meets the base of the top front teeth (place where the gums and teeth meet):
Is most forward and exact at the point where the gums and teeth meet ()
Is a little further back ()
Is behind the a little. The back of the tongue should also meet the upper palate as it is a thick letter ()
The tip the tongue should meet the place where the gums and lower teeth meet. You should allow the flow of air in the mouth to pass from the back to the front and exit from between the teeth ()
The back of the tongue elevates to meet the the upper palate as it is a thick letter ()
For this letter, the teeth should be pressed together that the air passage sounds like a buzzing sound ()
the tip of the tongue meets the edge of the front upper teeth:
is articulated by putting pressure on the edge of the 2 upper incisor teeth
is articulated by putting pressure on the mid-section of the 2 upper incisor teeth
is articulated by putting pressure on the edge of the roots of the upper incisor teeth. The back of the tongue elevates to meet the upper palate as it is a thick letter ()
The nasal cavity is located at the furthest point of the nose (the bridge of the nose). It is the opening that connects the mouth with the nose. This connection is where the ghunnah exits. The ghunnah is a sound that is resonated and the tongue is not used to produce it . The duration of the ghunnah sound is for 2 counts.